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Here we will consider strategies for expanding the basic summary — conclusion.

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Here we will consider strategies for expanding the basic summary — conclusion.

But two words of advice come in order. First, in spite of how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Second, by virtue of their placement, the conclusion carries rhetorical weight. It will be the last statement a reader will encounter before turning from your own work. Realizing this, writers who expand in the basic summary-conclusion often want to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a greater degree of diction. Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine so long https://edubirdies.org/ as they don’t unbalance the paper and call attention to themselves. Having labored extended hours over your paper, you have got every right to wax eloquent. But keep a sense of timing and proportion. Make your points quickly and end crisply.

Statement of the Subject’s Significance

One of the most effective techniques to conclude a paper is always to talk about the larger significance of what you have written, providing readers with yet another reason to regard your projects as a effort that is serious. When working with this tactic, you move through the concern that is specific of paper into the broader concerns regarding the reader’s world. Often, you will need certainly to choose among a selection of significances: A paper on the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of air travel as it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on contraception might end with a discussion of the effect on sexual mores, population, or even the church. But don’t overwhelm the importance to your reader of the remarks. Keep your discussion well focused.

The following paragraphs conclude a paper on George H. Shull, a pioneer into the inbreeding and crossbreeding of corn:

. . . Thus, the hybrids described and developed by Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U.S. corn production.

The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and dramatic in the Corn Belt. From 1930 through 1979 the typical yields of corn within the U.S. increased from 21.9 to 95.1 bushels per acre, therefore the extra value to the farmer is currently several billion dollars per year.

The success of hybrid corn has additionally stimulated the breeding of other crops, such as for instance sorghum hybrids, a feed that is major crop in arid parts of the entire world. Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930. Approximately 20 percent regarding the land specialized in rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, that is reported to yield 20 percent a lot more than the best varieties. And lots of superior varieties of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, and other vegetables are hybrids. Today virtually all corn stated in the countries that are developed from hybrid seed. From those blue bloods regarding the plant kingdom has come a model for feeding the world. 10

The sentence that is first of conclusion is a synopsis, and as a result the reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull’s techniques for the hybrid breeding of corn. The summary is followed closely by a two-paragraph discussion on the significance of Shull’s research for feeding the whole world.

Call for Further Research

When you look at the scientific and social scientific communities, papers often end with overview of what has been presented (as, for instance, in an experiment) therefore the ways that the subject under consideration needs to be further explored. If you raise questions which you call on others to resolve, however, make certain you know that the investigation you are calling for hasn’t recently been conducted.

This next conclusion comes from a sociological report regarding the keeping of elderly women and men in assisted living facilities.

Thus, our study shows a correlation between the keeping of elderly citizens in nursing facilities in addition to significant decline of these motor and intellectual skills on the ten months following placement. What the research has not made clear is the extent to which this decline that is marked due to physical as opposed to emotional causes. Older people are referred to homes at that point within their lives when they grow less in a position to take care of themselves — which implies that the drop-off in skills could be due to physical causes. However the stress that is emotional of placed in a house, away from family plus in a breeding ground that confirms the in-patient’s view of himself as decrepit, may exacerbate — or even itself be a primary reason for — the individual’s rapid loss in abilities. Further research is necessary to clarify the partnership between depression and particular ailments that are physical these impact the skills for the elderly in nursing facilities. There is doubt that is little information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to supply more effective services.

Notice how this call for further study locates the author in a community that is large of on whom she depends for assistance in answering the questions which have come out of her own work. The author summarizes her findings (within the first sentence for the paragraph), states what her work has not yet shown, after which extends her invitation.

The objective of your paper might be to examine an issue or controversy and to discuss factors that are contributing. This kind of a full case, it will be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to offer a solution on the basis of the knowledge you’ve gained while conducting research. In the event the solution is to seriously be taken, your understanding should be amply demonstrated within the body regarding the paper.

. . . The major problem in college sports today is certainly not commercialism — it will be the exploitation of athletes as well as the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards.

Many universities are currently deriving substantial benefits from sports programs that rely on the labor of athletes drawn through the poorest sections of America’s population. It’s the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to observe that these young people get a return that is fair their labor both in terms of direct remuneration as well as in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports.

Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports ought to be designed to extend until graduation, in the place of covering only four years of athletic eligibility, and really should include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper care that is medical. At institutions where in actuality the profits are particularly large (such as Texas A &M, that could afford to pay its football coach $280,000 a year), scholarships must also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition. The main thing is the fact that the athlete be remunerated fairly and have the opportunity to get skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and psychologically demanding full-time job. This could well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers.

Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be easy to implement. The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to employ their athletic labor at minimal cost. But solving the fiscal crisis of this universities from the backs of America’s poor and minorities just isn’t, in the end, a tenable solution. The college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what is rightly his — and hers — a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work with the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the help from organized labor. 11

In this conclusion, the writer summarizes his article in one single sentence: «The major problem in college sports today is certainly not commercialism — it will be the exploitation of athletes plus the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards.» In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis of the problem just stated and follows with a general recommendation — that «educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens» be responsible for the welfare of college athletes. In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, as well as in the ultimate paragraph, he anticipates resistance into the proposal. He concludes by discounting this resistance and going back to the overall point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal.

An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the point of which in a conclusion is always to shed light on the subject. The anecdote is more direct than an allusion. With an allusion, you simply refer to a tale («a lot of people today reside in Plato’s cave . . .»); with all the anecdote, you really retell the story. The anecdote allows readers to realize because they get to exercise their creativity for themselves the significance of a reference to another source — an effort most readers enjoy.

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